ICEMAN - the Instrument for assessing the Credibility of Effect Modification ANalysis


How credible is a subgroup effect?


Most clinical studies include subgroup analyses. The results of those analyses are difficult to interpret and typically over-rated. ICEMAN is an instrument to facilitate a structured assessment of the credibility of subgroup effects and is based on an international expert consensus.

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Stefan Schandelmaier, Matthias Briel

Schandelmaier S, Briel M, Varadhan R, Sauerbrei W, Devasenapathy N, Hayward RA, Gagnier J, Borenstein M, VanderHeijden GJMG, Dahabreh I, Schmid CH, Ioannidis JPA, Walsh M, Thabane L, Guyatt GH. Development of a new Instrument to assess the Credibility of Effect Modification ANalyses (ICEMAN) in randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. CMAJ. 2020 192(32):E901-E906